Dockerizing Django, uWSGI and Postgres the serious way

So you want to get in on the hot new stuff and decided it’s time to learn Docker. Good on you! Docker is the new kid on the block which allows you to containerize stuff. Well, not really – it’s not that new at all. I tend to miss these pieces of software which emerge from the darkness of the interwebs, silently creeping around behind me until they suddenly establish themselves as some sort of standard and everybody except me uses them.

If you’re similar to me in that respect: Worry not! Here’s the good news: By now, you can google all error messages and get away without learning it at all.

But that’s not what we’re here for. We want to containerize things. Why do we want to containerize things? Because containerized things scale. Why do we want to scale? What an unnecessary question! We always must be ready to scale. When our Todo App hits the Hacker News front page, we should count ourselves lucky if we can simply whip up another 50 instances to handle the load of eager hackers with lots of things to do.

Also, python packaging can be messy at times and as we’re learning Docker right now, all our problems suddenly are to be solved with a hammer container, right? No need for virtualenvs, we simply shove everything into containers!

Dockerizing Django

Let’s dockerize a serious Django application. We shall use uWSGI because it’s harder to configure than Gunicorn and it scales. Further, Postgres shall serve as our database. To make things more complicated and because everyone tells us to do so, we also add nginx into the mix to reverse-proxy our visitor’s requests.

In our first attempt, we spin up an Ubuntu image and pretend we’ve just logged into a fresh server onto which we want to deploy our app. Here’s our Dockerfile:

FROM ubuntu:16.04

RUN apt-get update && \
    apt-get install build-essential \
                    python3 \
                    python3-dev \
                    python3-pip && \
    pip3 install --upgrade pip && \
    pip3 install uwsgi

Hum. That doesn’t seem quite right. Already a thousand lines spent only to be able to execute some python 3. Surely there must be a better way?

After some procrastination and clueless surfing on Docker Hub, enlightenment: A Python 3 image is available. Let’s grasp the opportunity and learn how those Python 3 Docker Image People wrote their Dockerfile. After a quick look, it dawns on us that there’s all sorts of Voodoo going on there. Maybe another time.

Anyway, we don’t want to understand things, we want to containerize them. Let’s use that python3 image now.

FROM python:3.6

RUN apt-get update && \
    apt-get install -y && \
    pip3 install uwsgi

Looks better already. Let’s copy our app into the container, too.

COPY ./app /opt/app

RUN pip3 install -r /opt/app/requirements.txt



CMD ["uwsgi", "--ini", "/opt/app/uwsgi.ini"]

Ah, almost done. But we’re always almost done, right? So what’s going on here: First, we copy our app (which resides in the same directory as the Dockerfile) into the docker container. In the container, it will be in the directory /opt/app.

Next, we pip3 install our Python 3 App requirements. You do have a requirements.txt and some sort of workflow for it, right?

We then set the environment variable DJANGO_ENV to prod, telling our Django App that we’re in production and serious production settings should be used instead of our usual development settings. You could read this variable in your like so:

if os.getenv('DJANGO_ENV') == 'prod':
    DEBUG = False
    ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['']
    # ...
    DEBUG = True

Be sure to use os.getenv('KEY') and not os.environ['KEY'] as the latter will throw a KeyError if the key doesn’t exist whereas the former will return None. As we’re probably not setting this variable to any value in development, we should choose the former.

Continuing to go through our Dockerfile, we type EXPOSE 8000 to tell Docker to expose port 8000 to the host. Why do we need to do that? All Docker containers are isolated by default meaning their file system and network can not interact with the host. And that’s a good thing, right? Our containers are nice and isolated. However, we developers now have to jump through all sorts of hoops to get into our containers. But let’s procrastinate and sort that out later.

Finally, we run uwsgi with our config uwsgi.ini which should look similar to this:

http-socket = :8000
chdir = /opt/app
module = serious_django.wsgi
master = 1
processes = 2
threads = 2

It’s important to note that we are using http-sockets instead of uwsgi sockets. This yields slightly worse performance but makes it easier to debug, as we can point our browser to and actually see something. As the performance difference most likely does not matter, luckily we should be able to scale anyway.

The rest is pretty straightforward as it’s the base config for any sort of Python WSGI application for uWSGI. Setting the number of processes and threads correctly for optimum performance involves some sort of Voodoo and we therefore simply choose processes = cores and threads = 2.

Dockerizing the Database

To get a feel for things, let’s play around a bit with containerized Postgres. We shall name our container our_db for better identification later on.

sudo docker run -it --name our_db postgres:9.6

Hum. Now our terminal is full of stuff and we can’t do anything. ctrl-c brings us out but also shuts our container down. What did we do? By passing the flags -it (short for -i -t, in case that wasn’t obvious) we start our Docker container in an interactive session which allows us to see its output and input some input.

To start our container without hooking up our shell to it, we type:

sudo docker run -d --name my_db postgres:9.6

And it obediently runs in the background.

But have we thought about persistence yet? What happens when we write to our database, where is the data saved and what happens to the data once we trash the container?

Think of the container as a simple virtual machine with Postgres installed. All written data ends up in /var/lib/postgresql/data. Once you remove the virtual machine, it’s gone. Same goes for the Docker container: The data ends up in the same directory in the container and once you remove the container, everything’s lost.

But worry not, according to Docker best practices, our containers should be immutable and therefore not have this sort of data in them, anway.

Let’s procrastinate once more and get to that later. First, we need to learn how to shell into a container and execute stuff.

Shell into a container

How do we get into it, though? “Simple”, we fire up a shell:

sudo docker exec -it my_db \\

Note that the double backslashes are added for readability.

We make docker execute /bin/bash, thereby creating a new shell for us without forgetting to add the flags -it again, otherwise things get weird.

So, now we’ve got a shell in our container. Why did we need that? No idea. How about some sql:

psql -U postgres

Well, that wasn’t really sql, but we now can see which databases currently exist. No surprises there. Let’s exit psql with \q and the container’s shell with ctrl-d.

So there’s actually a shortcut to that:

sudo docker exec -it my_db \\
                 psql -U postgres

Good to know. Now we have the tools to learn how to persist data correctly.

Persisting data

For persisting data in Docker, we have two options: Mounting a directory of the machine which is running Docker (the “host”) or creating a Docker data volume. Both are set via the -v flag. Let’s have a look at them.

Mounting a host directory

sudo docker run -d --name my_db \\
                -v /host/path:/container/path \\

Simple. The first path is the directory on the host, the second path is the directory in the Docker container which is created there if it doesn’t exist. Be sure to use an absolute path for the host directory, as otherwise you may be inadvertently…

Creating and mounting a Docker data volume

sudo docker run -d --name my_db \\
                -v db_volume:/container/path \\

This creates the Docker data volume db_volume and mounts it in the specified container directory.

But where do we find our Docker data volumes? docker volume is your friend.

sudo docker volume ls

ls lists all your docker volumes and create and rm do what you would expect. I find prune particularly useful, as it deletes all volumes which are not linked to any container (i. e., the containers which were created with them do not exist any more).

Putting it together

Due to Postgres saving data to /var/lib/postgresql/data out of the box, we have to slightly modify our command to persist our Postgres data correctly:

sudo docker run -d --name my_db \\
                -v db_volume:/var/lib/postgresql/data \\

Ah, there we are. Everything nice and containerized.

We’re done, right? Nope. Like with all new technologies, every solution yields two new questions. This time, those are:

How do we access our data volume from the host? And what about Postgres backups?

Accessing data volumes from the host

Let’s try to answer both questions with one answer, keeping the question growth linear instead of exponential. Say, we want to backup our Postgres database once in a while and would like to actually be able to access that backup (quite an outrageous idea, I know).

Let’s create a new volume pg_backups and spin up a Postgres container once again:

sudo docker run -d --name my_db \\
                -v db_volume:/var/lib/postgresql/data \\
                -v pg_backups:/pg_backups \\

Now, in our Postgres container we are able to access the directory /pg_backups which points to the data volume with the same name. How about dumping our db and copying it to the host. But first, let’s create a database to export:

sudo docker exec my_db -it psql -U postgres

Exit with ctrl-d. We have created some serious data.

Now, onwards. Dump it:

sudo docker exec my_db -it /bin/bash
pg_dump serious_db > /pg_backups/serious_db_20170709.sql

Done! Now it’s in our pg_backups data volume. Hm, that doesn’t help much. We still can’t access it from the host. To do that, our options boil down to two:

  • Instead of having created pg_backups as a data volume, we could have mounted a host directory instead, e.g., linking /pg_backups in the container to /host/some_path/. This would certainly make accessing backups easier at the cost of making the container more host-dependent by mounting a host directory all the time and having to specify the same host directory each time we spin up new one. If you want to go down this path, see the command above to mount host directories.
  • Access our pg_backups data volume from yet another instance we spin up which has also mounted a host directory. This is slightly more complex, therefore we choose it. It also has the nice effect of keeping our Postgres container nice and isolated from the host, accessing pg_backups only when we need to.

This time, I’m choosing Ubuntu as an image, simply because I know my way around and haven’t thought much about other options. I only need to copy stuff, so probably one could choose alpine or whatever to save space.

Let’s quickly close the gate of the bike shed and get started:

sudo docker run --rm -it \\
                -v pg_backups:/pg_backups \\
                -v /host/dir/pg_backups:/host_backups \\

cp /pg_backups/* /host_backups/

Once we hit ctrl-d, our Ubuntu container nods approvingly and disappears forever (hence the --rm). So what did we do?

We created a new container which had two mounts: One pointing to our well-known pg_backups data volume, mounting it in the container at /pg_backups. This is the exact same data volume which is currently also mounted in our Postgres container! It therefore includes our precious serious_db_20170709.sql file.

The other one mounts a host directory /host/dir/pg_backups (which should exist, but be empty) into /host_backups in the container.

We then proceed to copy all backups in /pg_backups into the host directory /host_backups.

In simplified terms, we “bridge the gap” between data volume and host by creating a container which has mounted both, copying the files we need. Sounds easy now, right?

Composing containers

But how do we hook up our database to our Django container? docker-compose answers that question and makes us pose many more.

For some reason, docker-compose files are to be written in YAML. Let’s give it a go and whip up a docker-compose.yml:

version: '3'

    image: postgres:9.6
      - 5432
      - pg_data:/var/lib/postgresql/data
      - pg_backups:/pg_backups
      - POSTGRES_USER=postgres
      - POSTGRES_PASSWORD=postgres
    build: .
      - "8000:8000"
      - db

  pg_data: {}
  pg_backups: {}

That’s a lot of stuff right there. First, we define the version of our docker-compose file (3). This stuff is evolving quickly and you may find examples on the internet which refer to older versions. By the time you’ve found this blog entry, we already may be at version 100.

Look at the bottom. Here, we define our volumes, pg_data and pg_backups. The curved brackets are empty maps, we could pass some options here instead, but for now we’ll settle with the defaults.

Looking back at the top, we define our containers (or, um, “services”). First up is our db container, based off the Docker Hub Postgres image, version 9.6, exposing the default Postgres port 5432. It has two data volume mounts, namely pg_data and pg_backups. To polish things a little bit, we define the Postgres username and password. Note that the definition of the username is actually not needed, as the default username already is postgres.

Our next service, web, is not based off a Docker Hub image – it’s based off our Dockerfile which we wrote earlier, hence the build: ., assuming that our docker-compose.yml is in the same directory as the Dockerfile, of course. We map port 8000 to the hosts port 8000, meaning that our app server will be reachable in the host via once it’s running. Finally, we specify that this container relies on our db container being started up first, so docker-compose can plan the startup order of our containers accordingly.

Behind the scenes, docker-compose links these two containers together so that they will be able to communicate as if they were in the same network. Further, it creates our data volumes and mounts them in the specified locations.

Let’s give it a go:

sudo docker-compose up

Your shell should be flooded with text, good job. It’s interesting to see that the output of each container is prefixed with its name, e.g. db_1 |.

To stop this madness, hit ctrl-c.

As always, we have solved some problems while creating some more. Now, our database server is isolated from our Django app (uWSGI) server which is a good thing. However, we will have to point our Django app to our new database location. Open up your and modify this bit:

    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
        'NAME': 'serious_db',
        'USER': 'postgres',
        'PASSWORD': 'postgres',
        'HOST': POSTGRES_HOST,  # <-- this is new
        'PORT': '5432',

We set our database host to the variable POSTGRES_HOST. Further up, insert this:

if os.getenv('DOCKER_CONTAINER'):
    POSTGRES_HOST = 'db'

Remember how we set the environment variable DOCKER_CONTAINER in our Dockerfile at the beginning? Now it helps us by being able to query whether our Django App is running in a container und setting the database host accordingly. db refers to the hostname of our database which is specified in our docker-compose.yml.

Please note that the art of splitting development and production settings has more history than meets the eye in this simple example. This is just a rather quick way of doing things. There certainly would be more polished ways and, as always, there’s an article in the epic Django docs on that.

Django migrations in Docker

More progress, more questions. How do we run Django migrations now? Easy. Start up our composition if it is not running yet with sudo docker-compose up, then:

sudo docker-compose exec web /bin/bash
cd /opt/app
python3 migrate

And hopefully your web container obediently replies with some applied migrations. But what exactly did we do here?

First, we opened up a shell in our web container. Note the difference: This time, we’re using docker-compose exec instead of docker exec. Does it matter? It depends. You could of course look up the auto-generated name of your web container, most likely projectname_web_1 and simply run our old friend docker exec -it with the same options. However, if you have multiple containers with the same name and want to apply a command to all of them at the same time, you will need docker-compose exec.

From there on it’s straight sailing: Change the directory to the Django app directory and run the migrations.

Dockerizing nginx

We’re almost done with our seriously containerized deployment stack. The last step would be placing nginx in front of uWSGI. Why would we want to do that? Do we have to? The answer is we don’t but we should because, well, everyone else does it and then it must be good, right?

Here’s the plot outline: Our nginx webserver should run on port 80 and 443, serving http and https requests respectively. The SSL certifiate should be acquired via Let’s Encrypt and somehow be renewed automatically. The requests should be proxied to our uWSGI server running on port 8000.

So, what are our options?

  • Continue containerizing everything and containerize nginx.
  • Run nginx in the host os (“bare metal”) and set everything up the old-school way.

Let’s think about the first option. At least two problems arise:

  1. The process of acquiring, saving and renewing the SSL certificate makes our container stateful, violating the “immutable container” best practice.
  2. Our nginx container will block our ports 80 and 443, being coupled to one website (our serious Django app). What do we do if we want to host multiple websites (on diffent domains) on these ports with the same nginx instance?

Of course, we are not the first people to ask these questions and there are nifty solutions out there already: For example, there’s the letsencrypt-nginx-proxy-companion which basically solves these problems but is not trivial to set up and understand.

So, should we containerize nginx? Let’s see what I did…

Not containerizing nginx

Here’s my answer: I didn’t. To be honest, I had been hacking away with Docker for three days already and was tired of containerizing things. Thinking about the above two problems, this time I took the easy way out instead of containerizing everything (sorry!) – I set it up in the host os.

I won’t go into much detail here as DigitalOcean has a a great guide on exactly this topic and our setup differs only slightly from theirs. Here’s our simplified nginx site config, sitting in /etc/nginx/sites-available/serious_project:

upstream app {

server {
    listen 80 default_server;

    location / {
        allow all;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header X-Cluster-Client-Ip $remote_addr;
        proxy_pass http://app;

Link and test the settings file, nudge nginx to reload and we’re rolling:

sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/serious_project \\
sudo nginx -t
sudo systemctl reload nginx

Finally, it’s time to setup Let’s Encrypt and modify our nginx config accordingly. For instance, all http traffic on port 80 should be redirected to https. This is left as an exercise to the avid reader and beautifully described in the linked DigitalOcean article.


Containerizing things is fun. However, in the beginning it’s not very intuitive and first steps can be quite demoralizing making you shout “Damn it! I’m setting this thing up old-school!”.

On the JavaScript-scale of frustration (10 = Node.js, 0 = Django), Docker definitely ranks somewhere around 7. But once you’ve grasped the basic concepts of Docker and things start working nicely together, it’s almost as rewarding as when you’ve created your first to-do app in React and it doesn’t crash on input.

Have fun containerizing things!

I’d like to thank @mhubig@wshayes and @messa for their corrections in the comments. Who would have known, there are always some more best practices to follow 🙂


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